"Duality in Czech agriculture: an advantage or a disadvantage for agriculture of the new generation?"
Representatives of the Liaison Agency FADN CZ were members of the solution team (CAU, IAEI).
Specifické cíle projektu jsou: (i) Zpracovat detailní rozbor produktivity, efektivnosti a jejich zdrojů dle velikosti a výrobního zaměření podniků, (ii) Identifikovat úroveň udržitelnosti hospodaření s přírodními zdroji a potenciál udržitelného růstu zemědělství, (iii) Zhodnotit míru ziskovosti dle velikostních skupin
a výrobního zaměření a identifikovat její zdroje, (iv) Zpracovat analýzu vztahu mezi produktivitou a zahraničním obchodem, (v) Vyvinout modelový/metodický nástroj pro posouzení vlivu současných a budoucích politik/opatření.
Čechura, L., Žáková Kroupová, Z., Lekešová, M. (2022). Productivity and efficiency in Czech agriculture: Does farm size matter? Agric. Econ. – Czech, 68, 1–10.
Čechura, L., Žáková Kroupová, Z., Kostlivý, V., Lekešová, M. (2021). Productivity and Efficiency of Precision Farming: The Case of Czech Cereal Production. AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 13(3), 15-24. ISSN 1804-1930.
In 2022 and 2023, the Liaison Agency FADN CZ participated in the project "Pilot project: Developing a farmers' toolbox for Integrated Pest Management practices from across the Union. Part 2: Converting Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) into Farm Sustainability Data Network (FSDN)".
The project is aimed at the implementation of the transformation of FADN into FSDN, which was proposed in 2019 by the European Green Deal. As part of this transformation, legislative, technical, and methodological issues are discussed. By converting the FADN survey to the FSDN, the database should be expanded to include selected indicators from the environmental and social areas. Technological development, digitization and data sharing are also important elements.
The content of Liaison Agency FADN CZ activities was the fulfillment of an special questionnaire survey, the provision of a complex of information in relation to a wide range of indicators, the assessment of new considered identification and other indicators in relation to the situation in the Czech Republic, ITC solutions and the architecture of information systems.
The contact office of the FADN CZ participated in the UNISECO project. The three-year project was implemented in the period 2018-2021. The project aimed to use a transdisciplinary approach to strengthen the sustainability of EU agricultural systems. Identifying and understanding socio-economic, ecological and political conditions as well as barriers at the territorial level will provide the basis for the development of a methodological toolkit for assessing the environmental, economic and social impacts of innovation strategies and incentives for agro-ecological approaches in EU agricultural systems. The processed methodological tools were tested at the level of case studies of 15 European countries. Practical validation of the conceptual framework led to final recommendations for future applications.
The study in the Czech Republic was focused on preserving the viability of dairy farms using organic farming as an agroecological farming system with best practices on arable land. The geographical area of the case study is the Vysočina region. It is a traditional agricultural region: 60% of its area is covered by agricultural land, of which 77% is arable land. Vysočina was chosen as the main area of milk production, including organic, in the Czech Republic. Another specificity of the region is the occurrence of important water areas and water sources. In addition to case studies, other outputs can be studied, e.g. freely available scientific articles, newsletters, videos, presentations, posters.
More information about the project can be found at https://uniseco-project.eu/case-study/czech-republic and https://uniseco-project.eu/.
Liaison Agency FADN CZ is a co-investigator of an international project handled by the Farm Level Analysis Network group at the OECD. The empirical project is part of the OECD's efforts to understand the impact of policies and other factors on productivity and environmental sustainability at the farm level. Advanced dynamic statistical methods using company data were applied to the solution. Case studies of seven countries of the world with different production orientations were elaborated in detail. Specializing in milk production in the Czech Republic, Denmark and Norway and focusing on field production in France, Italy, Australia and the United Kingdom. It was found that a higher application of decoupling (separation of payments from production) within the agricultural policy has a positive effect on the productivity of holdings. The ability of farms to increase production with smaller inputs has been confirmed, provided that local incentives are set correctly, which would enable sustainable productivity growth.
The outputs from this project were processed into two publications. The first publication deals with the main findings and the second publication describes individual case studies in detail.
Antón, J., Sauer, J. (2021). Dynamics of farm performance and policy impacts: Main findings. OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, 164. https://doi.org/10.1787/af1f4600-en.
Sauer, J., Chancellor, W., Mennig, P., Anton, J. (2021). Dynamics of farm performance and policy impacts: Case studies. OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, 165, https://doi.org/10.1787/3ce71854-en.
The joint project of the Farm-Level Analysis working group at the OECD was solved in 2017 and 2018. The goal of the project is to compare business performance between individual countries, including the determination of the most important determinants, i.e. the calculation of TFP according to a harmonized methodology. Case studies were developed for Estonia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Chile, Denmark, Korea and Norway.
In the initial phase, a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of agricultural holdings was carried out, on the basis of which comparable clusters of agricultural holdings were identified at the level of individual countries involved in the project. Subsequently, various performance indicators were assessed, selected and applied. The determination of total factor productivity (TFP) of agricultural enterprises was carried out on the basis of previous OECD work in this area using the non-parametric index method. Based on these results, the link between the characteristics of agricultural enterprises and their performance was analyzed. Findings on the factors and characteristics of groups of enterprises with high and low efficiency were interpreted with regard to the applicability within the framework of setting agricultural policy rules and the sustainability of increasing productivity.
The international Pacioli workshop is focused on the issue of collecting, processing and analyzing individual data, in particular the data of the FADN sample statistical survey. The workshop is regularly attended by around 40-60 participants from many countries around the world (EU, USA, Canada). Workshop participants address both current issues related to data collection and future perspectives on the organization of surveys. During the workshop, the outputs of studies and analyzes based mainly on the FADN database of individual countries, as well as the FADN EU database (administrator DG.AGRI) are presented.
In 2019, an international workshop was organized in the Czech Republic with the organizational support of the Liaison Agency FADN CZ. During the workshop, two presentations were hold by our employees.
In 2018, the first results of the IAEI internal project Multi-criteria evaluation of the management of agricultural holdings for the financial year 2016 were presented at the workshop.
In 2017, a solution to the IAEI internal research project Multi-criteria evaluation of the management of agricultural holdings was presented at the workshop with a focus on the possibilities of determining the weights of individual criteria and entire groups (dimensions). Furthermore, the output of the internal research project Impact of subsidies on the economy of organic farming holdings - analysis of technical efficiency was presented.
In 2016, the methodological procedure of the proposed solution of the internal research project Multi-criteria evaluation of the management of agricultural holdings was presented.
In 2015, the output of the internal research project Estimation of economic results based on FADN was presented and further possibilities for the development of the researched issue were discussed.
In 2014, the developed methodology for predicting economic results was presented in a presentation entitled "Microsimulation model estimating Czech farm income from Farm Accountancy Data Network database".
Internal IAEI projects handled by FADN staff
The project follows on from the Smart FADN support project from previous years. The FADN system is a unique source of accounting data at farm level and is a well-established system within the EU, which the European Commission intends to further develop and convert into a data network for farm sustainability. In addition to economic and economic data, the FSDN will collect environmental and social data at farm level in line with the objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy, the Farm to Fork strategy and the biodiversity strategies. It will thus provide a more comprehensive picture of EU farms and help assess the sustainability of EU agriculture.
In previous years, several items of an environmental nature were already added as part of the support project, among other things, with the aim of determining the willingness of farmers to provide this data. This year, we will continue based on the experience gained with the transition from FADN to FSDN.
Harvilíková, M., Macháčková, J. (2023). Evropská komise přemění FADN na FSDN. Zemědělec: Odborný a Stavovský Týdeník, 30.
The project is focused on the methodology for calculating the breakdown of economic results in agriculture for selected aggregated groups of holdings using the FADN CZ database. The FADN CZ sample survey provides data extrapolated using weights to a representative set of market-oriented agricultural holdings in the Czech Republic (standard production of at least EUR 15,000). An integral part of the methodology will be the use of the outputs of the Selection Survey on the costs and yields of agricultural products of IAEI. The calculation model will be gradually automated using a selected suitable software tool for repeated processing. An analysis of the use of the methodology for different classifications will also be carried out with regard to the representativeness of the data for the selected aggregated groups.
Mlezivová, I. (2023). Economic Results Decomposition in Agriculture Based on FADN. 28. Pacioli workshop, Ptuj, Slovenia.
The project is a continuation of projects from previous years, which dealt with the effect of opportunity costs on the economic results of farms and the development of a method of multi-criteria evaluation of the management of agricultural holdings. The main goal of the project is to assess the sustainability of agricultural enterprises in the Czech Republic based on the FADN database. The evaluation of the sustainability of agricultural holdings is carried out using a self-developed method of multi-criteria evaluation of the management of agricultural holdings, which contains five areas (production, performance, financial stability, environmental, others, including social) of sustainable management in agriculture. The FADN CZ microeconomic database is used for the processing, which contains both pan-European harmonized standard indicators and other supplemented indicators from financial analysis, economic viability, environmental and social.
Hloušková, Z. (2023). Multidimensional Sustainability Assessment in the Czech Republic – project development. 28. Pacioli workshop, Ptuj, Slovenia.
Organic and conventional farming holdings show different production. There is a general assumption that lower yields and the intensity of animal husbandry are compensated by higher prices in organic farming, i.e. the valuation of certified organic products significantly exceeds the valuation of conventional production. Despite the extensive promotion of organic products and the increasing awareness of traders, processors and consumers about the benefits of organic production and certified product quality, the increasingly high price often represents an obstacle to sales. Certified organic farms are then unable to obtain sales for their products on the market with the price of the organic product and are forced to realize production on the conventional market, and therefore with the valuation of conventional production.
IAEI is the only organization in the Czech Republic that, thanks to the unique FADN and Statistical Surveys in organic farming databases, long-term monitors and regularly evaluates data on the management of organic holdings. The aim of the project is to verify, on the basis of a sample, how different the valuations are in primary production for bioproduction realized on the organic market and bioproduction realized within the conventional market and how the possibilities of application on the market are reflected in the overall economic situation of the company.
Publications:Fuksová, Z. (2023). Changes of Organic Farming in Czechia During the Last Ten Years. 28. Pacioli workshop, Ptuj, Slovenia.
The main topic of the project is ensuring the calculation of opportunity costs in agriculture over the FADN database and their further use in analyzes of the viability of agricultural enterprises. In contrast to accounting profit, when calculating economic profit, so-called opportunity costs are taken into account, which characterize the use of own production factors (labor, land, capital) of agricultural holdings. The result of the project is a set of new indicators in the FADN database, which are related to the opportunity costs of agricultural holdings. The outputs of the project are published in specialist periodicals.
Špička, J., Dereník, P. (2021). How opportunity costs change the view on the viability of farms? Empirical evidence from the EU. Agricultural Economics – Czech, 67 (2), 41-50.
Hloušková, Z., Lekešová, M., Prajerová, A., Doucha, T. (2022). Assessing the Economic Viability of Agricultural Holdings with the Inclusion of Opportunity Costs. Sustainability, 14 (22). https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215087.
Landa, J., Mlezivová, I., Hloušková, Z. (2022). Spotřeba minerálních hnojiv v unii. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník. 30(51), 10. ISSN 1211-3816.
Kontaktní pracoviště FADN ČR (2022). Hospodaření zemědělských podniků v ČR a zemích EU – Zaostřeno na precizní zemědělství. Občasník Zajímavosti z FADN, Praha: Ústav zemědělské ekonomiky a informací. ISBN 978-80-7271-256-4.
Kontaktní pracoviště FADN ČR (2021). Ekonomika zemědělských podniků v ČR a zemích EU – Zaostřeno na ekologické zemědělství. Občasník Zajímavosti z FADN, Praha: Ústav zemědělské ekonomiky a informací.
Kontaktní pracoviště FADN ČR (2020). Zajímavosti z FADN – Ekonomika zemědělských podniků v ČR a zemích EU – Analytický pohled na hospodaření producentů mléka. Občasník Zajímavosti z FADN, Praha: Ústav zemědělské ekonomiky a informací.
Landa, J., Hloušková, Z. (2023). Udržitelné hospodaření podle FADN. Zemědělec: Odborný a Stavovský Týdeník, 42.
The goal of the multi-year project were to create a proposal for a new FADN data collection and managerial use system, the so-called Smart FADN. The design of an innovative solution for the collection and use of FADN data will be based on the use of new technologies. To ease the burden on farmers and increase their motivation to participate in the FADN survey, it is necessary to use available information from other administrative sources and find new ways to simplify data collection using digital and information technologies. As part of the project, the Small FADN internet application for data collection was created and subsequently modified. There has been an expansion of the output module usable for managerial purposes, which enables the comparison of the results of a given company with the aggregated data of a group of similar companies. Furthermore, the possibility and procedure of automatically uploading some items from external administrative sources to the standard FADN survey was also tested as part of the project, which was already implemented for the survey of the accounting year 2020.
Due to the new strategy of the European Commission (EC) "Farm to Fork", which applies a fair, healthy and environmentally friendly system of food production, the EC proposes to transform FADN into FSDN (Farm Sustainability Data Network). The aim is therefore to integrate indicators for all dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental, social) at the level of agricultural holdings. With regard to the above, the SMART FADN Project will continue with the intention of gradually taking into account the future development and modification of FADN.
Fuksová, Z., Novák, M. (2022). Produkce metanu v chovu přežvýkavců. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník, 11. ISSN 1211-3816.
Macháčková, J., Hanibal, J. (2021). Výsledky projektu Smart FADN. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník, 17. ISSN 1211-3816.
Macháčková, J., Harvilíková, M., Hanibal, J. (2019). Projekt Smart FADN zefektivní sběr dat. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník, 28. ISSN 1211-3816.
The project was aimed at expanding knowledge about the environmental behavior of companies. In the first year of the project, indicators were identified that are available from the FADN survey, and that have the ability to tell about the farm's approach to sustainable agriculture.
In the second year, pilot calculations were performed and standard formulas adapted to FADN data were used to calculate the entire FADN sample. The balance of NPK fertilization, year-round soil coverage with vegetation and methane production was determined, or eq. CO2, from cattle breeding. The results were compared for groups according to selected sorting criteria.
Fuksová, Z., Vintr, T. (2021). Bilance živin NPK u podniků s různou specializací produkce. Agromanuál, 1. ISSN 1801-4895.
The aim of the project is to analyze the correlations between the characteristics of agricultural enterprises and their performance, and thus enable more accurate prediction of farmers' reactions to planned agricultural policy measures. This project is related to the OECD international project FLA TAD/DO/2017.47 "Drivers of Farm Performance", Johannes Sauer, Technical University of Munich.
Using data from the FADN Survey, a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of agricultural enterprises is carried out through selected indicators such as the size of agricultural enterprises, specialization, income diversification, agroecological characteristics, input ratios, level and structure of agricultural enterprise subsidies. On this basis, at the level of the selected group of production focus, compared clusters of agricultural enterprises were identified and an analysis of factors influencing the performance of farms was carried out.
The heterogeneity of field production farms was confirmed as part of the solution in 2018, and three different technology classes were identified based on 7 indices and their components (including subsidies). In 2019, the empirical analysis of the transitions of agricultural holdings between classes was completed, the verification of a simpler functional form as well as changes in the specification in relation to unobservable heterogeneity, the verification of the inclusion of some components of the indices determining inclusion in the technological class as parameters of the estimated production function. In 2020, a summary and detailed interpretation of the results was carried out, taking into account the factors of the current CAP - the correlation of the change in classification in the technological class and the support provided. This assessment concerns field production holdings FADN Survey in the period 2005-2018.–2018.
Kostlivý, V., Fuksová, Z. (2021). Rozdělení do technologických tříd – podniky polní výroby v letech 2005-2018. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník, 12. ISSN 1211-3816.
Kostlivý, V., Fuksová, Z., Rudinskaya, T. (2020). Drivers of farm performance in Czech crop farms. Agricultural Economics – Czech, 66 (7), 297-306.
Kostlivý, V. (2018). Prezentace „Drivers of farm performance in Czech crop farms“. OECD Farm-level Analysis Network, 22 zasedání 16. listopadu 2018, Session 2: Drivers of farm performance.
The project was focused on the difficult-to-process topic of multi-dimensional evaluation, where different perspectives on the functions of agriculture meet. These aspects can not only be in a harmonious relationship, but on the contrary their goals can compete with each other. This is mainly the relationship between production and economic goals versus social and environmental goals. In order to achieve sustainable agricultural development, it is necessary to ensure a balance between these areas. Determining this balance is not straightforward and is a very complicated issue. The intention of the solved project is to appreciate in the final evaluation not only the individual dimensions, but also their interrelationship. As part of the project, efforts were made to develop a methodical procedure based on periodically available information from the FADN CZ database in such a way as to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the functions of agriculture than is currently customary.
In the final multi-criteria evaluation of agricultural enterprises, the areas of production, performance, financial stability of the enterprise, environmental and others (including also social functions) are involved.
As part of solving the issue of multi-criteria evaluation of agricultural enterprises, a complete methodological procedure was developed and a separate database was created with the calculation of multi-criteria evaluation from 2014. The results are communicated to interested farmers using the application FADN PUBLIC/modul FARMER, which enables companies involved in the investigation to access the FADN CZ database.
Hloušková, Z., Lekešová, M. (2020): Farm outcomes based on cluster analysis of compound farm evaluation. Agric. Econ. – Czech, 66, 435–443.
Špička, J., Vintr, T., Aulová, R., Macháčková, J. (2020). Trade-off between the economic and environmental sustainability in Czech dual farm structure. Agric. Econ. – Czech, 66, 243–250.
Hloušková, Z., Lekešová, M., Hlaváčková, M., Pánková, L. (2020). Multicriteria assessment of Czech farms. Agric. Econ. – Czech, 66, 101–111.
The FADN database is a unique source of representative economic data for ecological management. As part of the three-year project, panel data from the FADN survey were used to analyze the technical efficiency of ecologically managed enterprises.
The project presented a view of the productivity and efficiency of agricultural enterprises from many points of view. In particular, it concerned the method of management, production focus and economic size. The solution is a contribution to the discussion on the development of the competitiveness of organic agriculture.
In the first year of the solution, a methodical calculation procedure was defined and a database was compiled. Analytical results for the period 2011‑2014 were assessed mainly from the point of view of production orientation when comparing the results of conventional and organic farming enterprises.
In the second year, the research team focused on the analysis of technical efficiency for the extended analyzed period 2011-2015. In the methodological solution, indices of changes in the total productivity of production factors (TFP) determined by the DEA Malmquist method were used, which was carried out on a sample set of panel data of 440 enterprises representing a production focus with animal production, of which 114 farmed ecologically.
In the third year of the solution, the influence of subsidies on the economy of organic farming enterprises was investigated. The aim was to assess the ability to increase productivity, growth potential and trends in the efficiency and productivity of organic farming enterprises according to production orientations based on FADN survey data 2011‑2016. The impact of subsidies on the economy of organic farming enterprises and the analysis of technical efficiency were assessed in variants using the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and with the application of the SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) model of stochastic frontier analysis with the distinction of production focus groups (VZ) and in follow-up to the project solution in 2016.
Kostlivý, V., Fuksová, Z. (2019). Technical efficiency and its determinants for Czech livestock farms. Agricultural Economics – Czech, 65 (4), 175–184.
Kostlivý, V., Fuksová, Z., Dubec, J. (2017). Farms Productivity Developments Based on Malmquist Production Indices. Agris on-line, Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2(9).
Kostlivý, V., Fuksová, Z., Dubec, J., Hanibal, J., Peterková, J. (2017). Ekonomika chovů ovcí a koz v ekologickém zemědělství. Náš chov, 8, 49-53.
Kostlivý, V. (2017). Prezentace Economic Results of Organic Farming in the Czech Republic, 19. zasedání OECD Network for Farm-Level Analysis (22. – 23. 5. 2017).
As part of the project, a methodological procedure for predicting the economic results of individual enterprises was designed and subsequently certified, including making these results available to individual agricultural enterprises. The FADN CZ database is used to evaluate the economic situation of agricultural enterprises, which also serves as a basis for calculating predictions and estimates.
Furthermore, the project dealt with the issue of financial analysis for natural and legal persons, which is another practical output of the project for farmers. The financial analysis of companies of legal entities is based on financial statements. The financial analysis of businesses of natural persons is processed differently, which is derived from specific items of the FADN CZ questionnaire. The complete outputs of the financial analysis are also made available electronically to companies participating in the FADN survey.
Data investigated within FADN is strictly confidential. For this reason, only collective results (e.g. group averages) can be published, and farmers can only access individual data of their enterprise after logging into the secure system.
To make the results available, modular remote access to the FADN CZ database is used using the FADN PUBLIC online software application (https://public.fadn.cz). After registration, users from the professional public can use the BASIC MODULE, which offers many variable views of the aggregated results of agricultural holdings.
Hloušková, Z., Lekešová, M., Prajerová, A., Dereník, P. (2021). Odhad ekonomických výsledků zemědělství v ČR na bázi podnikových dat (certifikovaná metodika). Praha, ÚZEI, 24 s. ISBN 978-80-7271-245-8.
Hloušková, Z., Ženíšková, M., Prášilová, M. (2018). Comparison of Agricultural Costs Prediction Approaches. AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 1, 3-13.
Špička, J., Macháčková, J., Hloušková, Z. (2018). On-line kalkulace ukazatelů finanční analýzy jako služba zemědělcům účastnících se šetření FADN. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník, 16. ISSN 1211-3816.
Lekešová, M., Hloušková, Z., Ženíšková, P. (2017). Extrapolace a predikce výsledků. Zemědělec: odborný a stavovský týdeník, 50. ISSN 1211-3816.
Hloušková, Z., Lekešová, M., Slížka, E. (2014). Microsimulation Model Estimating Czech Farm Income from Farm Accountancy Data Network Database. AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 3, 27-37.
Co-solution of FADN employees on other internal IAEI projects
The project focus on the sustainability of economy in the direction of environmental efficiency and is trying to find ways to measure it, especially in ANC areas.
The goal of the project is to create a monograph on the topic of farmers in less favorable areas of the Czech Republic. The amount of analytical material that has been created on the topic in recent years will be concentrated in one document, in which the given topic will be described more comprehensively.
The goal of the first year of the project was the analysis of the viability of agricultural enterprises in less favorable areas (ANC) of the Czech Republic with a focus on the economy of farms classified according to production orientation and the identification of the degree of influence of ANC payments in these groups. Another view of the results was the classification according to the area of agricultural land of the enterprises, which resulted in insights into the issue of the degressivity of ANC payments. The second year of the solution was a project focused on a more detailed analysis of the viability of farms in less favorable areas of the Czech Republic, especially on the analysis of individual indicators, the creation of a multidimensional view of viability and the detection of suitable predictors of viability. The aim of the project is to strengthen the viability assessment methodology in terms of predictive modeling and to develop simulation tools.
Liaison Agency FADN CZ closely collaborated on the preparations for changes to the LFA measures (now ANC) within the Rural Development Program 2014-2020. This issue was the basis of the solved project, which was aimed at evaluating the impact of changes in LFA payments on the farm economy. The aim of the project was to define and analyze the links between the variables that are included in the evaluation of the impacts using statistical methods from the analysis of the dependencies of quantitative characteristics.
The Rural Development Program for the period 2007-2013 included a number of investment support measures aimed at modernization in agriculture and forestry, adding value to agricultural, food and forestry products, or diversifying non-agricultural productions such as renewable energy sources or tourism and non-commercial activities. The aim of the internal research project was to quantify the causal effects of support compared to a counterfactual situation without intervention on supported businesses, especially on their economic performance and productivity resulting from the structural support provided to agricultural businesses over a longer period of time.
The main goal of the project was to clarify the territorial differentiation of Czech agriculture and the countryside and also to focus on territorial aspects of farm diversification. The differentiation of the Czech countryside and agriculture was analyzed, a typology of the Czech countryside and a socio-economic typology of Czech agriculture were created based on indicators of employment in agriculture and the importance of livestock production. The territorial importance of farm diversification was assessed based on the typology of agriculture and using various data sources (CZSÚ, SZIF, FADN).
The goal of the project was to improve the definition of LFA in the Czech Republic in the context of the EU, to develop a methodology for determining the impact of natural restrictions on the farm economy, and to develop a methodology for defining areas with natural disadvantages in the Czech Republic for the period after 2014. Among the research results, in particular, is a list of cadastral territories that are included to the LFA and are listed in the Government Regulation and the specialized map of the LFA (PRV CZ 2014-20).